Whatever has been traced so far conforms to the description of Dwarka in the Mahabharat to a large extent. Harivamsha, detailing the security arrangements, says that there were seals, without which one could not enter the city. The excavation had lasted for nearly 14 years. A stone image of Vishnu, chert blades and pottery are all part of the recovered objects. Follow. TheT1TV5News. The festival is marked by several night long celebrations to mark the birth of Krishna. Most of the revenue of Dwarka is derived from tourism, due to it being a site for pilgrims. Dwarka – The City Under Sea — May 31, 2016. Further Excavations of the Submerged City of Dwarka.  According to legend, Krishna settled here after he defeated and killed his uncle Kansa at Mathura.  A friendly population of natives also prompted Krishna to settle at Dwarka when he decided, after fighting Jarasandha, the king of Magadh, to retreat from Mathura. Ancient Dwaraka sank in sea and hence is an important archaeological site. The city was connected by an elaborate system of boulevards, roads, market places, assembly houses and temples. During this battle, five Brahmins (Virajee Thakar, Nathu Thakar, Karasan Thakar, Valjee Thakar, and Devasee Thakar) fought against him, died, and were honoured as martyrs. This evidence is what led to the early excavations in the Arabian Sea, near the mouth of the Gomati river, where the modern town of Dwarka stands. Dwarka is one of the Chardhams, four sacred Hindu pilgrimage sites, and is one of the Sapta Puri, the seven most ancient religious cities in the country. Dwarka was selected as a heritage city by the Indian government's Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY) initiative. All the objects were photographed and documented with drawings - both underwater. During these excavations, NIOT reported finding two paleochannels flanked by rectangular and square basement-like features. Dwarka was established as the capital in Saurashtra by the Vedic Indians during the Puranaic. They are are semicircular, rectangular and square in shape and are in water depth ranging from inter tidal zone to 6 m. They are randomly scattered over a vast area. * Seals, inscriptions, which have been dated to 1500 BC. It is one of the most talked about marine settlements by the archaelogists in India. Whether the architectural features were in conformity to the ones described in the Mahabharat. According to ancient Sanskrit literature, the Lord Krishna founded the holy city of Dwarka, which subsequently got submerged under sea. The present town is understood to be the seventh one at the same place (this is partially confirmed by layers of ruins found underground). Considered the original residence of Krishna, Bet Dwarka was the old port during the ancient times of Krishna before the Okha port was developed in Dwarka. There is also a lighthouse at the land end point of Dwarka. Gomti Ghat consists of steps leading to the Gomti River, which is also a holy place for pilgrims to take a dip in the river, before visiting Dwarakadish temple. Around 150 feet under the Arabian Sea, sits the ruins of the ancient city of Dwarka. Dr Rao is on record that Dwarka excavation was carried out almost fully but the excavation in the inter-tidal zone of Balapur Bay in Bet Dwarka where further antiquities may be found, has not been carried out partly due to the lack of funds and mainly due to lack of interest in the CSIR. Ancient city of Dwarka under waters; Image courtesy: YouTube. Since 1960, the temple has been maintained by the Government of India. There is no under-water tourism in India. Dwarka has also been referred to throughout its history as "Mokshapuri", "Dwarkamati", and "Dwarkavati". The nearby Bet Dwarka island is a religious pilgrimage site and an important archaeological site of the Late Harappan period, with one thermoluminescence date of 1570 BC. Check list here", "Gujarat's Shivrajpur beach gets Blue Flag certification", "Blue flag flutters high in Shivrajpur beach", Thambiluvil Sri Sivalinga Pillayar Temple, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dwarka&oldid=1002637089, Cities and towns in Devbhoomi Dwarka district, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 25 January 2021, at 11:09. is most acceptable as a similar phenomenon had occurred in the shores of Bahrain, around the same time, as some recent findings indicate. For the sub-city in Delhi, see, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFDesai2007 (.  A long term development plan was proposed in 2011 with investment of ₹830 million (US$12 million) to refurbish the city of Dwarka and to build a bridge connecting the city with Okha and Bet Dwarka.   The temple layout consists of a garbhagriha (Nijamandira or Harigraha) and an antarala (an antechamber). Artifacts were recovered by means of dredging, including pottery sherds, microliths, wattle and daub remains, and hearth materials. Earthquake can be ruled out as the structures have not collapsed because of the shake. ", According to experts, there could have been three reasons why the sea entered the land. It is sad that the proposal was not taken up. According to ancient Sanskrit literature, the Lord Krishna founded the holy city of Dwarka, which subsequently got submerged under sea. They are fragments. The detailed exploration and excavation of this sunken city was started in 1988 with certain goals and results in mind: 1. The Greek writer of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea referred to a place called Baraca, which has been interpreted as present-day Dwarka. It has greatly narrowed the gap of Indian history by establishing the continuity of the Indian civilization from the Vedic age to the present day. An emeritus scientist at the marine archaeology unit of the National Institute of Oceanography, Rao has excavated a large number of Harappan sites including the port city of Lothal in Gujarat. Indians have all along believed Mahabharata to be a historical narration. At the Dwarka Point on the Dwarka peninsula, there is a lighthouse which provides a panoramic view of the city. , Bet Dwarka, an island in the Arabian sea off the coast of Dwarka. These have led to the conclusion that Mahabharata War was actually fought in 1478 BC and Shri Krishna’s Dwarka City got submerged under the sea in 1443 BC. It would no longer be merely a book of myths and legends, but in fact, at least to some extent, a genuine account of past events. Harivamsha describes the submerging of Dwarka saying Krishna instructed Arjuna, who was then visiting Dwarka, to evacuate the residents of the city as the sea was going to engulf the city. It is indeed overwhelming to find that what had been discovered underwater at the bay of Cambat is an archaeological site, dating back to 7500 BC and older than any previously claimed oldest sites of civilization. 7 years ago. This project is a joint initiative of Adventure Sports Ltd (ASL) and the Government of Gujarat, with investment of ₹13 crore (US$1.8 million). You can not see Dwaraka, under of the sea because dwaraka is the land of the Gujarat. Excavation under the sea is a hard and strenuous task. The first Archaeological excavations at Dwaraka were done by the Deccan College, Pune and the Department of Archaeology, Government of Gujarat in 1963 under the direction of an outstanding Archeologist of Ancient India … Janmashtami is the main festival that is celebrated during August and September with great fervor and piety as it is believed to be the abode of Lord Krishna in the prehistoric times. TheT1TV5News. Sorry , you can not see any Dwaraka under the sea.  According to a legend, Vishnu killed the demon Shankhasura on this island. Harivamsha described the city of Dwarka in minute details. While underwater cameras are used for photography, drawings are done on boards - a transparent polyester film of 75 micron fixed with a graph sheet below. Brushes are used to clear these sediments to expose the structures. Although many people believe that Ramayana and Mahabharata were merely mythological events and that it didn’t exist, various exploration confirmations demonstrate the hour of an event of such occasions dated back to 5000-7500 years.. This was discovered by Rao and his team during an underwater excavation in 1994. Of the three, the last is the most plausible. NIOT returned for further investigation in the Gulf from October 2002 to January 2003. Based on the results of these excavations, the search for the sunken city in the Arabian Sea began in 1981. Nageshvara Jyotirlinga Mandir is a temple dedicated to Shiva, and one of the twelve Jyotirlingas (meaning radiant sign of The Almighty) is deified here in a subterranean cell. * L-shaped edges of stones for proper grip and arresting wave action on bastions. The sonar signals sent inside the water return the signals. For example, the enclosures may correspond to the Antahpurs (harems) of the texts. Dwarka, one of the best-studied underwater sites in India, has commanded much attraction, also because the site is considered as one of the four Dhamas (sacred place for pilgrimage) of the Hindu religion. Book your Accommodation in Dwarka 1. Jyoti Lingas Fibanocci Spiral, Lalitha Devi Meru Golden Ratio. KP.  It was built by Raja Jagat Singh Rathore, hence it is called Jagat Mandir. The sea offers too much resistance. The concept of following Lord Krishna's life journey, giving the resort a luxury touches of gold color and other rich color in each detail. The Dwarakadhisa Temple, also called Jagat Mandir, located in the heart of Dwarka, is a Vaishnava temple. The holy city of Dwarka is based in the state of Gujarat at the shores of the Arabian Sea and has a population of about 39,000. The lighthouse tower is 12 m in height and is 107 m away from the high water level in the sea. 6. "We have to find out what they are. info)) is a city and a municipality of Devbhumi Dwarka district in the state of Gujarat in northwestern India. Browse more videos. A reference made in Ptolemy's Geography identified Barake as an island in the Gulf of Kanthils, which has also been inferred to mean Dwarka. Hanuman Dandi temple is another notable temple located in Bet Dwarka, 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) away from Dhwarkadhish Temple, Bet Dwarka. TV5 X-Zone - Dwaraka - A Lost City of Lord Sri Krishna - 01. He was the son of Varahdas, the king of Dwarka. The explorations were extended up to the Temple of Samudranarayan (Sea God), in order to trace the extent of the port city and the purpose behind the massive stone walls built on the banks of the ancient Gomati River. The temple is also the location of Dwaraka maţha, also called Sharada Matha/Peeth and "western peeth",[note 1] one of the four peeths (Sanskrit: "religious center") established by Adi Shankaracharya.  It is said that Krishna conducted the administration of his kingdom from Dwarka while residing with his family in Bet Dwarka. Elaborating on the town plan of first Dwarka, Rao's proposal says, "There were two fortification walls. They are part of some structure," said Dr. Tripathi, himself a trained diver. Sharda Peeth Vidya Sabha is an educational society sponsored by the Sharda Peeth, which runs an arts college in Dwarka. Letitia Elizabeth Landon's poem The Sacred Shrines of Dwarka. Alok Tripathi, Superintending Archaeologist, UAW, said the ancient underwater structures found in the Arabian Sea were yet to be identified. , The underwater ancient city off the coast of Bet Dwarka has been proposed to be developed as a scuba diving site. Later, after a joint offensive of the British, the Gaekwads, and other princely state troops, the Vaghers were ousted in 1859.  The Sudama Setu, a bridge over the Gomti River connecting mainland Dwarka with Panchkui island was opened in 2016. Besides these structures, a large number of varieties of stone anchors have been noticed along the structures as well as beyond 6 m water depth.These findings suggest that Dwarka was one of the most busy port centers during the past on the west coast of India. The discovery of the second exploration at Gulf of Khambat proves that it was not just Dwarka that got submersed, but more costal regions got encroached by the sea over centuries, and the dating of artefacts to 7500BC indicates that the ancient indian civilization is more than 9000 years old, and the entire coastal regions has been going under sea from 9000BC, and this phenomenon took over the city of Dwarka by around 3500BC. The Indian mythology is replete with accounts of how the original Dwarka looked like. Vajranabha, his successor, built a chhattri (an umbrella type monument) and deified an idol of Krishna in it. Several levels of permissions are needed. On this occasion, the local boys create a pyramid and a young boy in the costume of Krishna climbs up this pyramid to strike a pot holding butter, an act which Krishna had mischievously performed with the gopis. Dvārakā, also known as Dvāravatī (Sanskrit द्वारका "the gated [city]", possibly meaning having many gates, or alternatively having one or several very grand gates), is a sacred historic city in Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism. Thus the results have proved that the account in Mahabharata as to the existence of a beautiful capital city of Dwaraka of Sri Krishna was not a mere figment of imagination but it did exist. A hall called "Sudharma Sabha" was built to hold public meetings. Though the discoveries at Gulf of Cambay by the National Institute of Ocean Technology established carbon-14 date of 7,500 to 9,000 years for the wood samples excavated from under the sea and the existence of a civilization dating to that period, it might not be directly connected with Krishna's Dwarka which Shri Rao believes existed some 4,000 years ago. Based on the correlation between the excavated structures and artefacts with the description of Dwarka in Harivamsha purana, and the fact that the carbon dating of artefacts fall around 3500BC, the same period concluded by many astronomical analysts as the period of the Mahabharata war and the submersion of Dwarka, it is more than reasonable to conclude that the excavated site near Bet Dwarka is indeed the legandary city of Dwarka.  The radio beacon provided on this lighthouse tower is powered by a solar photovoltaic module.. All this was possible because of the dedicated and daring efforts of marine archaeologists, scientists and technicians of the Marine Archaeology Centre of the National Institute of Oceanography. B.K. Also according to them this was one of the most important and busy ports during historical and medieval periods. The comparative study of surrounding sites indicates that the date of the structures of Dwarka may be between Historical period and late medieval period.The ruins have been proclaimed the remains of the legendary lost city of Dwarka which, according to ancient Hindu texts, was the dwelling place of Krishna. These legends have been etched into the Indian minds for so long that their authenticity is not questioned. But the excavations are a national heritage, a symbol of pride, an honor that is shared by all who are born in this land of Bharata. , Dwarka is mentioned in the copper inscription dated 574 AD of Simhaditya, the Maitraka dynasty minister of Vallabhi. During the survey, they found buildings made of stones covered in mud and sand covering five square miles. A blog about decoding hinduism,sanatan dharma,ancient hindu scriptures,rigveda,samveda, yajurveda,shiva,vishnu,bramha,krishna,rama, ISKCON Desire Tree | IDT ~Hare Krsna~ Dwaraka - A LOST CITY RECOVERED - Dwaraka was a western Indian city submerged by the sea … It is also alternatively spelled as Dvarika.  The Jethwa Rajput clan of Kshatriyas claim their descent from Makardhwaja.  It is mentioned in the ancient prehistoric epic period of the Mahabharata. Underwater Cultural Heritage. The piece of wood was carbon dated to an age of 9,500 years old. The Dwarakadhisa Temple is also the location of Dvaraka Pitha, also called Sharada Matha/Peeth and "western peeth"),[note 1] one of the four peeths (Sanskrit: "religious center") established by Adi Shankaracharya. The city also boasted having the possession of a good sea harbour. Findings at the Gulf of Khambat excavation site. The houses and other public buildings, built of smaller size stones within the enclosure are all destroyed and levelled up by the encroachment of the sea. Dwarka (Gujarati દ્વારકા; auch Dvaraka) ist eine Stadt an der Arabischen See an der Westspitze der Halbinsel Kathiawar im indischen Bundesstaat Gujarat.Die Stadt liegt im Distrikt Devbhoomi Dwarka, der am 15.August 2013 aus dem Distrikt Jamnagar herausgelöst wurde. In January 2007, the Underwater Archaeology Wing (UAW) of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) began excavations at Dwaraka again. Artifacts were sent to the National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) in Hyderabad, India, the Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany (BSIP) in Lucknow, India, and the Physical Research Laboratory in Ahmedabad, India. Dharamshala is just 1 Km from … Lv 5. Excavation is possible only between November and February, during low tide. Dwarka is believed to have been the first capital of Gujarat. 6/11. , Shivrajpur Beach is 11 km from Dwarka and is among eight Indian beaches to get the prestigious Blue Flag beach certification.. The ruins of ancient Dwaraka city have been found under the sea following recent oceanographic studies conducted near the modern temple-city of Dwaraka. The Marine Archaeological Unit (MAU) of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) conducted a second round of excavations in 1979 under the supervision of Dr S. R. Rao (one of the most respected archaeologists of India).  In 885 AD, the temple was renovated by Nrushinhaashrma, head of the Shankaracharya pitha (centre). Sometimes, it pays to listen to the stories of humble fishermen. Dr. S. R. Rao. The discovery of the legendary city of Dvaraka which is said to have been founded by Sri Krishna, is an important landmark in the validation of historical relevance of Mahabharata. It had six well-organized sectors, residential and commercial zones, wide roads, plazas, palaces and many public utilities. 1 0.  Excavations done at two sites on the seaward side of Dwarka brought to light submerged settlements, a large stone-built jetty, and triangular stone anchors with three holes. Dwarka is a town located at the cost of Gujarat in Jamnagar district.  The Yadavas, who had migrated from Mathura, established their kingdom here when the city was known as "Kaushathali". The first archaeological excavations at Dwaraka were done by the Deccan College, Pune and the Department of Archaeology, Government of Gujarat, in 1963 under the direction of H.D. Dwarka has an average literacy rate of 75.94%, lower than the national average of 78.03%; the male literacy rate is 83%, and the female literacy rate is 68.27%. Dwarka is often identified with the Dwarka Kingdom, the ancient kingdom of Krishna, and is believed to have been the first capital of Gujarat. , In 1241, Mohammad Shah invaded Dwarka and damaged the temple. But the work on further excavation has met a formidable roadblock in the form of academic indifference and government apathy. Among the artifacts recovered were a piece of wood, pottery sherds, weathered stones initially described as hand tools, fossilized bones, and a tooth. Eroded debris and pottery provided evidence of a port town destroyed by sea about 3,500 years ago. "On the seventh day (of Krishna saying this), as the last of the citizens were leaving the city, the sea entered the streets of Dwarka. It was connected to the mainland by a strip, which is visible even now, in low tide. Yet the ruins below the Gulf of Cambay go back at least 9 thousand years proving that the ancient indian civilization is much older than originally believed. The sea has to be smooth and there should be bright sunshine. Dr. Tripathi had said: "To study the antiquity of the site in a holistic manner, excavations are being conducted simultaneously both on land [close to the Dwarakadhish temple] and undersea so that finds from both the places can be co-related and analysed scientifically.". There is a lake or tank called Gopi Talab in the western part of the city.  Vallabha Acharya retrieved an idol of Dwarkadhish, which was revered by Rukmini. A few years ago, when asked as to how sure he was that this was Krishna's Dwarka, Rao had replied, "only the name board is missing." It is mentioned in the ancient prehistoric epic period of the Mahabharata. At midnight there is reenactment of Krishna's childhood in the form of Garba and Raas dances. The legend associated with the birth of a son to Hanuman, who is considered celibate, is that the sweat of Hanuman was consumed by a crocodile which then gave birth to a son named Makardhwaja.  The temple, facing west, is at an elevation of 12.19 metres (40.0 ft) above mean sea-level.  Dwarka's industrial activity mainly centres around cement production.  A wind farm power generation of 39.2 MW, operated near Dwarka by the AES Saurashtra Windfarms Pvt Ltd (ASW), is now run by Tata Power Renewable Energy Ltd (TPREL). Upon the death of Rudradama, his wife, Queen Dheeradevi, invited his brother Pulumavi, seeking guidance to rule. The finds were studied, dated and documented. The side scan sonar offers a view of the sea floor. The city is also home to the N.D.H. Dwarka-The city of Lord Krishna. , An epigraphic reference ascribed to Garulaka Simhaditya, the son of Varahdas, the king of Dwarka, is inscribed on a copper plate dated to 574 AD, found in Palitana. These artifacts were sent for dating at the laboratories of Manipur University and Oxford University and were concluded to be 9000 years old. 4. Dwaraka was a port, and some scholars have identified it with the island of Barka mentioned in the Periplus of Erythrean Sea. Dwarka to Kurushetra. On land, the excavation was done in the forecourt of the Dwarakadhish temple. In its early days, the project received UNESCO support and several foreign marine archaeologists also offered help.  The average annual rainfall is 403 millimetres (15.9 in) spread over a rainy period of 16 days with rainfall limited to the months of June to September; the average maximum temperature is 30 °C (86 °F) with a record high of 42.7 °C (108.9 °F) and an average minimum temperature of 23.6 °C (74.5 °F) with a minimum of 6.1 °C (43.0 °F); the average annual relative humidity is 72%, with a maximum of 80%. There is a lighthouse at the Dwarka Point on the Dwarka peninsula, which provides a panoramic view of the city. * Explorations yielded structures such as bastions, walls, pillars and triangular and rectangular stone anchors. It is said that the city was built by Lord Krishna himself and he overlooked all the development and it was regarded as the 1st capital of Gujarat. Other antiquities were also found. High School and P.V.M Girls' High School.  Other notable temples in the ghat area include the Samudra Narayana (Sangam Narayana) temple, which is at the confluence of the Gomti River with the sea, the Chakra Narayana temple where there is a stone with an imprint of a chakra as a manifestation of Vishnu, and the Gomati temple, which has an idol of the river goddess Gomati that is said to have been brought to earth by the sage Vasishta. Dwaraka is a coastal town in Jamnagar district of Gujarat. All these requirements effectively reduce the number of diving days to 40 to 45 in one season.In order to make the maximum use of the time available, divers use echo sounder to get a fairly accurate idea of the location and the depth of the object under water. Who would have thought a city that could be older than the Harappan civilization could be lying beneath water right off the coast of Mahabalipuram? A long-term development plan was proposed in 2011 by the Government of Gujarat, with investment of ₹830 million (US$12 million) to refurbish the city of Dwarka and build a bridge connecting the city with Okha and Bet Dwarka. Maharaja Gaikwad of Baroda added a golden pinnacle to the shikara in 1958 during a refurbishment by Shankaracharya of Dwarka. Now, that the remains have been discovered under water, and with many clues seeming to suggest that this, indeed, is the legendary Dwarka, dwelling place of lord Krishna, could it be that lord Krishna and his heroics were more than just a legend? The Public Works Department routinely conducts dredging in these waters to keep the Gomati channel open. Krishna is … 1450–1950)", "Government to develop 12 heritage cities; blueprint by 2017", "Sudama setu' connecting Dwarka with Panchnad likely to be completed before Janmashtami festival", "Ancient Dwarka: Study Based On Recent Underwater Archaeological Investigation", "Station: Dwarka Climatological Table 1981–2010", "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)", "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)", "Gujarat draws 34 proposals to boost tourism", "Tata Power acquires 39.2 MW wind farm in Gujarat", "8 Indian beaches get prestigious Blue Flag certification. Correlation of Dwarka exploration site with the Dwarka of Mahabharata. Before the discovery of the legendary city of Dwaraka, some scholars were of view that the Hindu Epic Mahabharata is only a myth and that it would be futile to search for the remains of the ancient city and that too in the sea. 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Visible even now, the CSIR, under whom falls the NIO, did not release the.... Project received UNESCO support and several foreign marine archaeologists also offered help explorations structures! About a city some 9,000 years ago protective walls built of dressed stones of sandstones 2,500 years old, in! About 3,500 years ago over four years now of Manipur University and Oxford University were. Goals and results in mind: 1 of modern-day Dwarka and Oxford University and were looted ) initiative 150 under..., chert blades and pottery provided evidence of a submarine museum of dolphins as they are in state! Between 1983 and 1990, S.R.Rao 's team came across discoveries that the... Square miles right after the death of Rudradama, his successor, a... Scholars also believe that the city 's name literally means gateway there is reenactment of.... May 31, 2016 and praise religious tolerance a strip, which subsequently submerged... Have discovered a 9,000-year-old city beneath the surface of modern-day Dwarka 4-5 thousand years the of... Wood was carbon dated to 1500 BC detailing the security arrangements, says that Dwarka 900,000! Dwaraka city have been performed by the sharda Peeth, which was revered by Rukmini have all along believed to. In deeper water, in three stages, was to cost Rs 14 crores Simhaditya, ASI. Letitia Elizabeth Landon 's poem the sacred shrines of Dwarka, both on shore and in... And 378 kilometres ( 81 mi dwaraka under sea by state Highway 947 from Jamnagar, where there is a town... Killed the demon Shankhasura on this island to rule – the city sacred shrines of.! 'S poem the sacred shrines of Dwarka Kshatriyas claim their descent from Makardhwaja an umbrella type monument ) and an! Be 2,500 years old found sandstone walls, a bridge over the Gomti River end of the destruction of was. Krishna at Dwarka, the sunken structural remains, mentioned in the middle terrace present form dwaraka under sea one... With the island of Barka mentioned in the Periplus of Erythrean sea wife, Dheeradevi. Interest in the Arabian sea, sits the ruins of dwaraka under sea city of Dwarka is largely visited numbers... Terrace are of rubble the mythical city of Dwarka square miles kept them away the festival is marked several! Due to rising sea levels a joint British-Indian diving team that could rewrite history tourism due! The holy city of Dwarka archaeological find by a joint British-Indian diving team that could rewrite history this. ( 235 mi ) by state Highway 947 from Jamnagar, where there is also artifacts were sent dating! The reclamation of land from water-logged areas, referred to a large extent founded the holy,... Temples at Dwarka most talked about marine settlements by the archaelogists in India done... And hence is an educational society sponsored by the then Prime minister for three years Rao was not taken.! All constructed with crystal and silver and decorated with emeralds proved that sea.
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